Mounting evidence of global problems associated with excess atmospheric C02 requires a solution that can be implemented quickly, safely, and econmoically. Given these constraints, researchers worldwide have concluded that geologic sequestration is the best available option.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a system-level model for geologic sequestration that tracks the fate of CO2 and is designed to include all associated risks. The system-level CO2 sequestration model, called CO2-PENS (Predicting Engineered Natural Systems) uses GoldSim as an upper level platform.
CO2-PENS integrates a host of CO2 related processes including CO2 transport pathways, economics, and risk analysis:
A System Model for Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide
A method and cost model for treatment of water extracted during geologic CO2 storage
The CO2-PENS Water Treatment Model: evaluation of cost profiles and importance scenarios for brackish water extracted during carbon storage